Engineering Transactions, Online first

Improvement of the Mechanical Properties of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramic Composite Using Silicene

University of Technology

University of Technology

University of Wasit

In light of recent events in the replacement and generation of human tissues, it is becoming extremely difficult to ignore the existence of bioceramics. Although hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate materials are frequently employed individually, they both lack certain qualities. As a result, combining hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate may result in the combination of their respective qualities. The current study aims to investigate the effect of using a novel nanostructure called silicene (silicon nanosheet-SiNS) on the mechanical properties of the composite ceramic (biphasic calcium p hosphate) at various ratios of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate. The silicene has been synthesized and added at different weight percentages of 1, 3, and 5%. The results reveal that the compressive strength improved due to increasing the content of silicene. The average of increasing was between 58.6% and 142% because of the strong hexagonal structure of silicene. At the same time, the hardness of the biphasic calcium phosphate composite was enhanced by increasing the weight percentage of silicene. However, the hardness decreased when the content of silicene was more than 3% due to the presence of small cavities on the surface of the samples.

Keywords: silicene; silicon nanosheet; ceramic composite; calcium phosphates; hydroxyapatite; beta-tricalcium phosphate
Full Text: PDF
Copyright © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).


Moslim N.A., Beh C.Y., Kasim S.R., Ramakrishnan S., Effect of composition and temperature to the HA/β-TCP composite, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1082(1): 012023, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1082/1/012023.

Hannora A.E., Ataya S., Structure and compression strength of hydroxyapatite/titania nanocomposites formed by high energy ball milling, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 658: 222–233, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.10.240.

Vallet-Regí M. [Ed.], Bio-ceramics with Clinical Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

Valentim R.M.B., Andrade S.M.C., Dos Santos M.E.M., Santos A.C., Pereira V.S., Dos Santos I.P., Dias C.G.B.T., Dos Reis M.A.L., Composite based on biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) and nanocellulose from the açaí tegument, Materials, 11(11): 2213, 2018, doi: 10.3390/ma11112213.

Surya Raghavendra S., Jadhav G.R., Gathani K.M., Kotadia P., Bioceramics in endodontics – a review, Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry, 51(3 Suppl 1), S128–S137, 2017, doi: 10.17096/jiufd.63659.

Dorozhkin S.V., Calcium orthophosphate bioceramics, Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal, 12(3–4): 247–258, 2010, doi: 10.18321/ectj52.

Jang H. et al., In vitro and in vivo evaluation of whitlockite biocompatibility: comparative study with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 5(1): 128–136, 2016, doi: 10.1002/adhm.201400824.

Parirokh M., Torabinejad M., Dummer P.M.H., Mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive endodontic cements: an updated overview – part I: vital pulp therapy, International Endodontic Journal, 51(2): 177–205, 2018, doi: 10.1111/iej.12841.

Alliot-Licht B., Jean A., Gregoire M., Comparative effect of calcium hydroxide and hydroxyapatite on the cellular activity of human pulp fibroblasts in vitro, Archives of Oral Biology, 39(6): 481–489, 1994, doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(94)90144-9.

Ahmed Al-dujaili M., Jaheel S., Abbas H.N., Preparation of HA/β-TCP scaffold and mechanical strength optimization using a genetic algorithm method, Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, 53(1): 41–48, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s41779-016-0007-5.

Ye Y.-J., Wang P.-Y., Li Y.-P., Yin D.-C., HAp/Ti2Ni coatings of high bonding strength on Ti–6Al–4V prepared by the eutectic melting bonding method, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 26(2): Article number: 81, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10856-015-5419-1.

Li Z. et al., Incorporating silica-coated graphene in bioceramic nanocomposites to simultaneously enhance mechanical and biological performance, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 108(4): 1016–1027, 2020, doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36880.

Pei Q.-X., Sha Z.-D., Zhang Y.-Y., Zhang Y.-W., Effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of silicene, Journal of Applied Physics, 115(2): 023519, 2014, doi: 10.1063/1.4861736.

Botari T., Perim E., Autreto P.A.S., van Duin A.C.T., Paupitz R., Galvao D.S., Mechanical properties and fracture dynamics of silicene membranes, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16(36): 19417–19423, 2014, doi: 10.1039/c4cp02902j.

Yaokawa R., Ohsuna T., Morishita T., Hayasaka Y., Spencer M.J.S., Nakano H., Monolayer-to-bilayer transformation of silicenes and their structural analysis, Nature Communications, 7(1): 10657, 2016, doi: 10.1038/ncomms10657.

Molle A., Grazianetti C., Tao L., Taneja D., Alam M.H., Akinwande D., Silicene, silicene derivatives, and their device applications, Chemical Society Reviews, 47(16): 6370–6387, 2018, doi: 10.1039/c8cs00338f.

Elbadawi M., Meredith J., Hopkins L., Reaney I., Progress in bioactive metal and, ceramic implants for load-bearing application, [in:] A.R. Zorzi and J.B. de Miranda (Eds.), Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration, Ch. 10, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2016, doi: 10.5772/62598.

Spencer M.J.S., Morishita T., Theoretical studies of functionalised silicene, [in:] M. Spencer, T. Morishita (Eds,) Silicene. Springer Series in Materials Science, Vol. 235, Springer, Cham, 2016, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28344-9_5.

Augustin Lu A.K., Yayama T., Morishita T., Spencer M.J.S., Nakanishi T., Uncovering new buckled structures of bilayer GaN: A first-principles study, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 123(3): 1939–1947, 2019, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b09973.

Baradaran S., Moghaddam E., Basirun W.J., Mehrali M., Sookhakian M., Hamdi M., Nakhaei Moghaddam M.R., Alias Y., Mechanical properties and biomedical applications of a nanotube hydroxyapatite-reduced graphene oxide composite, Carbon, 69: 32–45, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.11.054.

Teow H.L., Sivanesan S., Eh Noum S.Y., Soosai A., Muniandy S., Effect of graphene-oxide addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of two-stage sintered zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) composites, MATEC Web of Conferences, 14th EURECA 2020 – International Engineering and Computing Research Conference “Shaping the Future through Multidisciplinary Research”, Vol. 335, Article Number 03019, 2021, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/202133503019.

Abdulridha N., Al-Ghaban A., Al-Obaidi A., Physical and structural properties of biphasic calcium phosphate BCP reinforced with silicene fillers, [in:] AIP Conference Proceeding, The 9th International Conference on Applied Science and Technology (ICAST 2021), J.H. Hashim, B.A. Joda, A.M. Abdulateef, T.M. Madlool, A.I. Mohammed, M.A. Al-Kaabi, A.A. Abdulmunem (Eds.), Vol. 2547, AIP Publication, 2023.

DOI: 10.24423/EngTrans.3070.20230328